|Beaune, Musée E.J. Marey (collections)|
Founded by the curator René André and Henri Savonnet in 1955, the museum presents the life and work of Etienne-Jules Marey (Beaune, 1830 - Paris, 1904), a physiologist of repute, who had invented chronophotography in 1882, the analysis of movement using photography, and scientific cinema in 1889. Instruments, models, pictures, documents, chronophotographs and films are used throughout the tour of the museum. A large part of the photographs come from the permanent collections of the Collège de France, where Marey had been professor. A policy of exhibitions backed by acquisitions and publications has been carried out since 1989 in order to honour Marey.
A display of works by scientists, photographers and painters influenced by the works of Marey: Harold Edgerton, Alexandra Allard, Paolo Gioli et Michel Hans.
(Beaune, 1830-Paris, 1904)
Born in Beaune on 5 March 1830, he was the only son of Claude Marey. His secondary education was at the college of Beaune, and he passed his literary baccalauréat in 1849. His mother wanted him to become a priest while he felt he had a calling to be an engineer. However, his father dreamt of seeing him a doctor at the hospital, and he opted to study medicine.
At the age of 29 he submitted his thesis, Research on blood circulation in health and during sickness. It was noted and focused his later work. He effectively gave up the practice of medicine and dedicated himself entirely to studying physiology, namely the operation of the "animal machine". Marey was fascinated by movement. He wanted to understand and analyse the mechanisms that govern life.< "I think, together with Claude Bernard, that movement is the most important act because all the functions lend support to make it happen" extract from "Movement in life's functions", Paris, 1868).
In 1860 he presented the Academy of Sciences with his sphygmograph, an instrument measure the pulse. In 1867 he was Flourens's substitute at the Collège de France, and in 1869 received the chair in natural history of organised bodies and director of the experimental physiology laboratory at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes.
Marey was the first to connect the concept of time and space, prefiguring the thinking of Bergson. To do so, he would record and retranscribe every movement using the method known as graphic, which he further developed during the 1860s. It was a matter of making visible what our eye had never been able to distinguish.
He was elected a member of the Academy of Medicine in 1872 and of the Academy of Sciences in 1878.
At the age of 52 he would use photography applied to the study of movements. In this he followed the example of Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904), an English photographer, who was the first to succeed, in 1878, to photograph a horse galloping, at the request of the former Governor of California, Leland Stanford. The latter had wanted to verify through a photograph what Marey had shown with his graphic method, that it is when galloping that the horse's four legs are suspended below the chest.
The stages in Marey's research were very logical:
- The photographic rifle (1882), the first portable camera, which could put onto a plate 12 shots in a second second. The system, however, had the inconvenience of a non-fixed point of view, the more the photos were out of focus.
- The chronophotogra Note 1 Catheterisation is the exploration, dilatation or evacuation of a natural cavity with a sensor.
Note 2 Hemodynamism: study of the various factors governing the circulation of the blood in an organism.
Note3 This is a pulse whose secondary rise that follows a normal beat is perceptible.
Marey E.J., La machine animale. 1873, republished 1993, EPS< Paris. (on sale at the museum).
Marey E.J., La méthode graphique dans les sciences expérimentales. Masson, Paris 1885. (in museum library).
Marey E.J., Le mouvement. 1894, republished in 1994, J. Chambon, Nîmes, coll. Rayon Photo. (on sale at the museum).
Dagognet F., Etienne-Jules Marey. Hazan, Paris 1987, coll. 35/87.
Braun M., Picturing time, the work of E.J. Marey. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London 1992.
Texts edited by Dr Chevaillier, President of the Association of Friends of Marey."